ago. 2018
Anno 02
L'Ordine del Giorno 19 gennaio 2018

Firenze, Melbourne e la città del futuro

Dove vogliamo vivere e realizzarci?

Nel 2020 in Australia, a Melbourne, la famosa azienda statunitense Apple aprirà un concept store nella piazza principale della città, Federation Square. Melbourne è considerata oggi, secondo la classifica stilata dall’Economist, la città più vivibile al mondo.

La notizia dell’apertura dello store di un’azienda privata proprio nel luogo pubblico per eccellenza, ha suscitato polemiche in Australia ma anche in area anglosassone. Di fronte a questo evento può essere utile tornare a chiedersi: quale funzione ha la piazza all’interno della città? E che relazione esiste tra la città e il modello di umanità che proprio in quei luoghi vorrebbe realizzarsi? Noi riteniamo infatti che esista un rapporto tra l’anima e la città, la dimensione interiore e quella esteriore. La condizione della città, e del suo fulcro, rivela indizi decisivi sulla definizione di umanità oggi dominante.

Senza avere la pretesa di ripercorrere le numerose tipologie di piazze che contraddistinguono i centri urbani di tutto il mondo, si può dire che, dall’agorà greca alla piazza italiana del Rinascimento, essa costituisca il centro vitale della città.

L’agorà greca era il luogo di incontro dell’assemblea cittadina e dei commerci che avvenivano nel mercato. Nell’Antica Roma il forum è circondato da edifici pubblici e templi. Nel Medioevo alle attività commerciali e alle sedi dell’autorità civile si affianca la Chiesa con un sagrato. Nel Rinascimento resta essenziale dare visibilità agli edifici pubblici, assumono inoltre un’evidenza spaziale i concetti di armonia, simmetria e razionalità.

Quindi la piazza si propone, dalla sua nascita, di trasmettere i valori pubblici della città: politici, sociali, religiosi, artistici, simbolici. E la città riflette, a sua volta, la condizione umana, il modo con cui concepiamo il nostro stare al mondo.

Dopo queste premesse, caliamoci ora nello stato d’animo che avvertiamo passeggiando per il “centro” di una città moderna. Possiamo notare innanzitutto che il centro in realtà è andato perduto. Il nostro movimento non confluisce certamente in un unico punto, che costituirebbe magari il centro di un cerchio perfetto, razionalmente delimitato da una cinta muraria di protezione contro la dimensione irrazionale e selvaggia, come la città medievale; piuttosto, siamo coinvolti in una dispersione caotica, affluiamo forzatamente in masse urbane che transitano spesso senza meta, o comunque passivamente. Inoltre, come ci segnalano drammaticamente i recenti episodi di terrorismo, ma anche le storie di crimine e di investigazione degli ultimi due secoli, è venuta meno la fiducia nella funzione protettiva della città, ormai pervasa e talvolta insanguinata dal torbido che emerge al di sotto di una facciata non più rassicurante.

Anche fermandoci al solo aspetto degli spazi urbani quindi, questo ci può comunicare, almeno in parte, l’idea di mondo della nostra civiltà. Una visione molto differente, ad esempio, da quella dell’uomo rinascimentale, che concepiva sé stesso come creato a immagine e somiglianza di un Creatore, principio centrale del Cosmo e in grado di garantire un ordine alla realtà, anche attraverso la razionalità umana. Passeggiando per Firenze, specie in alcune piazze, si può percepire ancora quel senso di armonia e di rappresentazione ordinata del mondo, e di apertura fiduciosa verso l’esterno.

Oggi invece la città sembra comunicarci ben altro. Probabilmente questo: perduto ogni legame con un Principio, vaghiamo senza meta e senza scopo in un universo insensato e disordinato. Non è forse questa la concezione cosmologica post-moderna? E non è una sensazione di spaesamento che, come nelle figure scolpite verso la fine degli anni ’40 dallo svizzero Alberto Giacometti, ci attanaglia se passeggiamo per una città moderna, se ci concediamo di ascoltarci davvero?

Torniamo ora a Melbourne, la “città più vivibile al mondo”. Il centro della città, come quello di molte altre metropoli, invita alla dispersione, a un’agitazione perpetua e irrisolta. Lo stesso disorientamento che l’io post-moderno avverte in relazione a un cosmo non più geocentrico e dunque antropocentrico. Quindi si pone una questione: è possibile colmare questa angoscia? In fin dei conti, nonostante l’assenza di un centro, di una visione sensata dell’esistenza, sentiamo comunque di dover agire nel mondo. Come riempiamo quindi il vuoto, dovendo comunque affaccendarci?

Ecco la funzione “salvifica” dell’Apple store, assunto qui come simbolo del consumismo imperante. La natura umana, per sua natura socievole, non può fare a meno di percepirsi in relazione. Non abbiamo però alcun Cielo verso cui rivolgerci, come l’uomo medievale, né abbiamo la convinzione di essere al centro della Creazione, come l’uomo rinascimentale. Così, come preannunciava Nietzsche, all’ultimo uomo non resta che rivolgersi ad altri idoli, e colmare il trono lasciato vacante erigendo nuovi templi, adorando nuovi idoli.

Ecco che a Melbourne proprio un edificio dall’aspetto di un tempio orientale, l’Apple concept store, permetterà di colmare il vuoto, la mancanza di direzione, di senso, che come individui avvertiamo a vari livelli in questa epoca storica. Alienati da un principio creativo che, non essendo più in Cielo, non sappiamo dove sia, veniamo indotti a rinunciare alla ricerca di un senso, di un centro vitale autentico, e siamo persuasi ad alleviare lo smarrimento riducendoci a consumatori, fruitori passivi di beni superflui. Se il Cielo è ormai vuoto, allora abbiamo bisogno di moltiplicare sulla Terra gli oggetti di consumo, in un horror vacui ormai dilagante a livello sociale.

Giunti a questo punto, viene da chiedersi se esista una speranza, una via d’uscita. Il processo di alienazione è davvero arrivato ora al suo trionfo estremo, e avrebbe quindi ragione uno degli architetti di Federation Square a Melbourne a sostenere che, ormai, solo una commercial activation può dare vita alla piazza, e quindi ai centri, alle città, all’esistenza umana?

Oppure esistono in noi altre dimensioni vitali, essenziali, che si ribellano a questa prospettiva, che rischiano certo di soffocare ma che sono anche pronte, forse come mai prima d’ora, a ribellarsi, ad insorgere all’alienazione estrema?

Infatti vediamo ovunque che il malessere, individuale e sociale, cresce. In una qualunque città moderna, e magari soprattutto in quelle decantate come i luoghi migliori in cui realizzarsi, milioni di persone soffrono per l’ansia, lo stress, la depressione, l’insonnia, l’inquinamento, la solitudine, il rumore. Non sono forse questi i sintomi di una trascuratezza ormai endemica dei bisogni e dei desideri di realizzazione che ci caratterizzano come esseri umani?

Siamo giunti alle soglie di un’alternativa radicale, che ci induce a ripensare la nostra essenza, la nostra esistenza sul pianeta Terra, e quindi anche gli spazi in cui vivere.

È tempo quindi di tornare ad avvertire la nostra natura più autentica. Chi siamo? Qual è lo scopo della nostra vita, e come possiamo realizzarci nel mondo, oggi? Il campo è aperto a soluzioni imprevedibili, inedite. Nessuna nostalgia per epoche in cui l’identità, umana e delle città, era solo apparentemente solida, ordinata, razionale, luminosa, spirituale, come hanno dimostrato i secoli successivi, oppure di comunità che necessitavano di una chiusura totale e di nemici esterni per sussistere. E, tuttavia, nemmeno un’adesione passiva a un modello di città, di umanità, di mondo, sempre più disgregata, polverizzata in atomi impazziti costretti a vagare in un caos insensato, freneticamente, come trottole impazzite.

Oggi, come mai prima d’ora, è necessario tornare a rivolgerci domande semplici ma essenziali: che cosa desidero? Cosa mi rende davvero felice? Proviamo a sondare realmente il nostro stato interiore: come mi sento se la mia vita sociale è ridotta a relazioni in cui vengo ricevuto solo come potenziale consumatore? In fondo, non desideriamo forse essere accolti come esseri umani, e approfondire l’unità, la conoscenza reciproca e la condivisione di una vita intensa e gioiosa? Non vorremmo assecondare e sviluppare le nostre qualità relazionali e creative, e sfuggire all’appiattimento su logiche di produzione e consumo?

Solo un’umanità rinnovata, quindi, che sappia tornare innanzitutto in sé la propria natura, il proprio centro vitale, potrà trovare la spinta creativa di ripensare radicalmente la propria vita, e con essa la forma delle città, attorno a un nuovo centro, o molti altri, in cui favorire le dimensioni dell’ascolto e dell’incontro fecondo e creativo.

La sfida, oggi come nelle epoche passate, si gioca al livello del pensiero, di visione del mondo e della nostra umanità.

63 risposte a “Firenze, Melbourne e la città del futuro”

  1. Davide Sabatino scrive:

    Ciao Filippo;
    posso solo che sottoscrivere ciò che leggo in questo tuo articolo. Ci sono i presupposti per una critica ricca e temeraria a tutto il panorama sociale-culturale che, come si evince, è ciò che sta alla base di quello che poi viene a palesarsi nella concezione architettonico-urbanistica di chi “pensa” e organizza La città moderna. Vorrei solo aggiungere un dettaglio interessante (spero) a quanto scrivi, che forse può ampliare il discorso. Anni fa a riconoscersi nel caos e nell’indifferenza generale fra le persone (non verso le merci, come sottolinei giustamente tu) era solo una parte della popolazione. Solo una fetta d’Europa, il Nord-Europa, veniva associata all’individualismo, alla logica lavoro e denaro; ufficio e business. Solo in Italia, circa trent’anni fa, la forbice nord e sud, sotto il punto di vista della “piazza”, intesa come luogo di aggregazione di vita sociale e di relazioni umane, era ancora percepibile come aperta: il sud faceva scuola al nord in fatto di comunicazione e accoglienza reciproca. Oggi, secondo uno sguardo attento, questo divario va sempre più accorciandosi e il sud, che sotto questo punto di vista è/era più avanti rispetto al nord, con la falsa e fuorviante pretesa di avvicinarsi ai parametri nordici (l’individualismo) si sta velocemente adattando. Basti osservare gli innumerevoli centri commerciali che anche lì, nelle terre baciate dal sole, ricche di piazze monumentali, continuano a nascere come funghi velenosi che però, questo bisogna riconoscerlo, trovano anche chi se li mangia!
    Detto questo, senza sembrare un leghista suddista (ormai tutto è possibile!) l’urgenza di trovare punti di agorà, di dialogo fruttuoso e socievole; punti costruiti e organizzati in funzione di una migliore relazione fra le persone che, mature e senza bisogni superflui, nè alienanti, si mettano in relazione autentica; tutto questo, dicevo, è sicuramente augurabile e d’obbligo. Noi, da parte nostra, cerchiamo di dare vita più che possiamo a luoghi liberi di scambio creativo. Uno scambio di pensieri più che di tecnologie varie che, nonostante l’utilità, restano oltremodo secondarie.
    Concludo consigliando un libricino edito da Mimesis “Apple come esperienza religiosa” che si collega bene al tuo discorso sul concept store.
    Un saluto!

  2. Filippo scrive:

    Ciao Davide! grazie per la tua lettura profonda e il commento. Anche io, avendo origini calabresi, conosco la realtà di cui parli, ed effettivamente la piazza manteneva nel Sud Italia, una funzione centrale, di conversazione e di scambio. Magari con dei limiti relativi a una chiusura di questo “centro” rispetto alla realtà esterna, penso all’ideale dell’ostrica in Verga…
    In Australia nel XIX e XX secolo il territorio era incontaminato e gli spazi ampi, così l’ideale di città “moderna” è stato attuato senza la necessità di dover smantellare costruzioni – e quindi visioni di umanità – precedenti. Nelle cittadine australiane, il “centro” coincide proprio, fisicamente, con lo shopping mall, il centro commerciale.
    Credo sia giunto il momento di creare, e perché no magari proprio in Italia, così come fu nel Rinascimento, anche un nuovo modello di città, o luogo abitativo, in cui l’umano possa crescere, sottraendoci al riduzionismo del modello urbanistico dominante.

  3. Marco Castellani scrive:

    “Se il Cielo è ormai vuoto, allora abbiamo bisogno di moltiplicare sulla Terra gli oggetti di consumo, in un horror vacui ormai dilagante a livello sociale.”Hai totalmente ragione, e questo argomento mi risuona quasi prepotente, nel mio “cielo interno”.

    Il cielo pieno di stelle – di occasioni discrete di luce, appese al nostro libero assenso – è oscurato dalle luce artificiali dell’apparato commerciale dominante (e che mancanza di chiaroscuro, che piattezza affermativa!), che non brillano della stessa perpetua speranza. Da un orizzonte piatto che non rilancia il senso nella vastità dei cieli “sopra di me ed in me” (direbbe Etty Hillesum) ma in una architettura logica razionalistica deprivata della meraviglia, affidata al calcolo economico, per mancanza di meglio.

    Siamo al ground zero, la solidità di un impianto snervato dal senso, come cemento armato… disarmato, è pericolosamente vacua. E’ straordinaria dunque – adesso! – la potenza del ricominciare, del riempire il cielo interno ed esterno di stelle, di senso. Di desiderio, nel senso più etimologico. Qui la scienza e la poesia si cercano, si accomunano nell’obiettivo comune: tornare a sperare. A vedere le stelle, sentire il loro sottile canto celeste.

    Grazie Filippo di questo bell’articolo.

  4. Filippo scrive:

    Grazie Marco per il tuo commento, anche a me sembra così… Un mondo che pullula sempre più di idoli luccicanti, ma forse dovremmo recuperare noi uno sguardo che illumini in modo più autentico la realtà. Filippo

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di Filippo Tocci
Sono nato nel 1990 a Milano, città dove poi ho compiuto studi umanistici. Ho insegnato lingua e cultura italiana in Australia e attualmente lavoro nel settore educativo in Italia. Credo sia sempre più urgente una nuova visione per rilanciare il nostro anelito a una realizzazione più autentica